Introduction to Probability Theory and Health Statistics –SLP

Introduction to Probability Theory and Health Statistics –SLP


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Introduction to Probability Theory and Health Statistics –SLP

Henningfeld (2009) definesthe heart rate, also known as the heart pulse, is the speed of the heartbeat. It is measured by the heart’s contraction per unit time. The rate of the heart is measured in beats per minute (bpm). The normal heart rate of an adult human being ranges between 60 to 100 bpm. A faster heart rate, which is above 100 bpm is referred as tachycardia, and a slower heart rate, which is below 60 bpm is called bradycardia. However, a sleeping adult is considered to have a normal heart beat of 40 – 60 bpm. Sometimes the heart is not beating at a regular pattern when this scenario takes place; it is called arrhythmia. Sometimes arrhythmia is caused by diseases.

Below is the collection of data, which shows my heart rate when I am at rest. The data of the heart rate was gathered after 30 minutes of resting each day. The heart rates were collected using an exercise Heart Rate Sensor- Pasco. The table below shows the actual data

Day of the week Beats per minute
Monday 99
Tuesday 97
Wednesday 113
Thursday 88
Friday 89
Saturday 111
Sunday 90

The data has a mean of 98.14286, which falls within the normal heart rate.

The heart rate can also be measured by feeling a pulse. The most appropriate place is on the neck to the side of the windpipe, using two fingers, the index, and the third finger.  When you feel your heart rate, in 15 seconds count the number of heartbeats. Multiply the number by 4 and that would be the heart rate (Henningfeld, 2009).

Different factors can influence the heart rate. The level of activity can either increase the heart rate or reduce it. When I am training, I need a lot of oxygen to produce the energy that I am using. Thus, the heart will pump more blood to supply to the muscle tissues, and thus to increase the heart rate. Other factors are the position of the body, that is, there is a different heart rate when one is standing up compared to another one lying down. Emotions and medication also affect the rate of the heart (Efimov, Kroll& Tchou, 2009).

As discussed above, tachycardia and bradycardia can signify an underlying problem to the general health of a person. There are several things that can influence tachycardia. There might be a damaged heart tissue caused by a heart disease, such as Anemia and fever. Anemia can also be the reason the heart rate is above normal. Drugs can also trigger tachycardia, such as the abuse of recreational drugs or a side effect of medications (Efimov, Kroll& Tchou, 2009).

Conversely, there are also other factors that can cause bradycardia. A low blood rate can show that one is aging, hypertension or a heart disorder at birth. Infection of the heart tissue, known as myocarditis, can also cause a low heart rate. A complication during a heart surgery, underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) and also a problem in the balancing of mineral-related substance can cause low blood pressure. Therefore, an abnormal blood rate can signify that there is a problem with how a normal body of a person work. A high or a low blood pressure can show that there is a health problem that the body is reporting.


Henningfeld, D. A. (2009). Health. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.

Efimov, I. R., Kroll, M. W., & Tchou, P. J. (2009). Cardiac bioelectric therapy: Mechanisms and practical implications. New York, NY: Springer.

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