BIO100 Study Guide

1 — Answer the questions below, briefly and in your own words. Do not cut and paste.

2 — Also review the Check Your Knowledge questions. They are in the book and on Launchpad. Some of the questions on the Exam will be from these CYK questions.

CHAPTER 8: EVOLUTION

1. What is evolution?

2. What are the 4 mechanisms of evolution?

3. What is a mutation? What causes mutations?

4. What is genetic drift? What is fixation? What are the founder effect and a population bottleneck? Provide an example of each.

5. What is migration?

6. What is natural selection?

7. Where does the evidence for evolution come from?

Review these Check Your Knowledge questions: 1, 3, 6-10, 17-21.

Chapter 9: Evolution and Behavior

1. What is an instinct or innate behavior?

2. What is learning?

3. What is an altruistic behavior?

4. How are the males and females of a species defined? What are four tactics for getting a mate? What is a tactic for keeping a mate?

5. Name three ways that animals communicate.

Review these Multiple Choice Questions: 2-5, 7-12

Chapter 10: Origin and Diversification of Life

1. What are the three phases in the origin of life on earth

2. What is a species? How do new species arise? What are two theories for the pace of evolution?

3. What are the 8 classifications of living things? How are humans classified?

4. What are the two categories of extinctions?

5. What are the three domains of life?

Review these Check Your Knowledge questions: 1-4, 9, 11, 13-17

Chapter 11: Animal Diversification

1. What are four ways animals are classified? Fig. 11-2. Be able to reference this figure and determine which of these characteristics a particular animal has.

2. What are the simplest animals?

3. What are the cnidarians?

4. What are the three types of worms?

5. What features are common to most mollusks? What are the types of mollusks?

6. What are arthropods? What are the four types of arthropods?

7. What are echinoderms?

8. What are the four structures are common to chordates?

9. What are two structures that enabled vertebrates to diversify? What were four requirements for vertebrates to move onto land?

10. What are amphibians?

11. What are birds?

12. What are mammals?

13. When did primates appear? Where did they live?

14. What are three differences between humans (H. sapiens) and our closest living relatives (chimps)? Where did the genus Homo evolve? When did our species leave Africa? Name three Homo species that lived at the same time as H. sapiens. What happened to these species?

Review these Check Your Knowledge questions: 5, 6, 9-16

Chapter 12: Plant and Fungi Diversification

1. What are the 3 characteristics of plants?

2. What are the 4 types of plants?

3. What is a seed?

4. What is a flower?

5. What is a fruit? What are some dry fruits? What are some fleshy fruits?

6. Name 3 plant defenses.

7. What are the characteristics of fungi? What fungus is the largest organism in the world?

Review these Check Your Knowledge questions: 2, 10, 12.

Chapter 13: Microbe Diversification

1. What are bacteria? What are the three types? Name 2 ways that bacterial are beneficial to humans. Name 2 diseases caused by bacteria.

2. What are Archaea?

3. What are protists? What are the 3 types? Name a disease caused by a protist.

4. What are viruses? Is a virus a cell? How do viruses reproduce? Name 3 diseases caused by viruses. What type of cells does the HIV virus infect?

Review these Check Your Knowledge questions: 1, 3, 10, 12, 14-18.

Chapter 14: Population Ecology

1. What is ecology?

2. What limits a population’s size?

3. What is aging? What is the longest documented life-span for a human? What are some long-lived species?

4. How do the growth rates of industrialized and non-industrialized countries compare?

5. Is social security going to be able to support all the aging baby boomers in the U.S.?

Review these Check Your Knowledge questions: 1, 10, 12, 14, 15

Chapter 15: Ecosystems

1. What is an ecosystem?

2. What are biomes? Name 3. What are their primary determinants?

3. Why is it hotter at the equator than at the poles?

4. What causes rain?

5. What are two ways that deserts form?

6. How does energy flow through an ecosystem? Why is it more efficient to eat lower on the food chain?

7. Name 4 defenses for reducing predation.

8. What are parasites? Name three.

Review these Check Your Knowledge questions: 1, 2, 3, 7, 11.

Chapter 16: Conservation

1. What are the three ways of defining biodiversity? Where is the most biodiversity?

2. What is acid rain?

3. What is the greenhouse effect?

4. What are two causes of global warming?

5. What is an ozone hole? What causes it?

6. What are some effects of the rapid deforestation occurring today?

Review these Check Your Knowledge questions: 1, 8, 9, 12.

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